Title IX

Title-IXIn 1972, the United States Congress passed Title IX of the Educational Amendments. This instituted a law that would seriously affect all U.S. educational institutions’ sports programs. The law specified that it was unlawful to discriminate on the basis of sex in any federally funded education program. This meant, among other things, that boys and girls, and men’s and women’s sports programs would have to receive equal funding and support under the new law.  

The law was passed in a time when feminist-inspired movements in many countries around the world were fighting for equality for women. While Title IX was a law directed at equality in education in general, it is sports programs that received the most attention. This was perhaps because of the visibility of sports and the prominent place they play, especially in American post-secondary education. Initially, Title IX met with mixed reviews. Especially vocal in opposition to the law were those who had a lot invested in men’s sports programs in the bigger educational institutions. Also, those that had administered male sports programs for years felt that the changes necessary to conform to Title IX’s standards would be difficult and expensive.  

In the aftermath of Title IX, a battle emerged between the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) and a group that had administered women’s sports, the Association of Intercollegiate Athletics for Girls and Women (AIAW). The NCAA had avoided equalization for years, being devoted almost exclusively to men’s sport. In fact, it was in opposition to the NCAA that the AIAW formed in the first place. However, with federal funding now legally devoted to equalization, the NCAA made an about-turn and suddenly supported equalization. In what many consider to be an obvious and unfortunate power move, the NCAA absorbed the AIAW. The long-term effects of this move were to wrestle control of women’s sport out of the hands of women. The AIAW was administered by women for women; however, with the take-over the administration of women’s sport fell into the hands of men.  

Title IX did not manage to equalize funding between the sexes, at least not at first. The legislators of Title IX probably couldn’t imagine the resistance to equalization in sport that would emerge. Nor did they probably realize the extent of male privilege in school sport, especially at the upper, more elite levels. Almost thirty years after the legislation, there is still not equalization in many cases, although an increasing number of schools have fallen in line with the law.  

Today, women’s sport has achieved a much higher level of respectability and support in schools. However, there is still resistance to complete equalization, and female-supportive administrators continue to fight legal battles in support of girls’ and women’s participation in sport.


(the act of making) a change to improve a rule, law, statement, etc.: Your plan needs some amendment.
So many amendments were made to the law that its original meaning was completely changed.
The opposition parties moved (=suggested) an amendment to the bill.
to debate/pass an amendment
constitutional amendments
amendment to
an amendment to the resolution
her arrest violated the first amendment to the constitution


to treat a person or group differently from another in an unfair way
discriminate against
Under federal law, it is illegal to discriminate against minorities and women.
discriminate on the grounds/basis of something It was found that the company still discriminated on the basis of race in promotions.


[transitive]to officially accept a law or proposal, especially by voting
Plans to extend the hotel have now been passed.
The motion was passed by 16 votes to 11.
pass a law/bill/act
The first Transport Act was passed in 1907.
The government has passed new legislation to protect consumers.
The United Nations Security Council has passed a resolution asking the two countries to resume peace negotiations.
the committee passed his nomination  
the bill passed the senate vote  
the bill passed by a slim majority  
the proposal passed by unanimous vote

feminist-inspired/politically/religiously etc inspired

started for political, religious etc reasons
We suspect that the violence was politically inspired.


to obey a law, rule etc
conform to/with
Students can be expelled for refusing to conform to school rules.

All new buildings must conform with the regional development plan.
products which conform to international safety standards


the period of time after something such as a war, storm, or accident when people are still dealing with the results
aftermath of
the danger of disease in the aftermath of the earthquake
the aftermath of war

to begin to be known or noticed :

a religious sect that emerged in the 1830s
emerge as
Local government has recently emerged as a major issue.



about-face  ( also   about-turn  British English )   noun  [ countable usually singular ]
a complete change in the way someone thinks or behaves  SYN  U-turn
The administration seems to have done a complete about-face on gun-control.


wrestle with something   to try to understand or find a solution to a difficult problem : 
I have been wrestling with this problem for quite some time.


a maker of laws or a member of a lawmaking body


a special advantage that is given only to one person or group of people
He had no special privileges and was treated just like every other prisoner.
privilege of
the privilege of a good education


a law or set of laws
This is a very important piece of legislation (=law) .
legislation on
the legislation on abortion
legislation to do something
new legislation to protect children
introduce/bring in legislation
The government has promised to bring in new legislation to combat this problem.
under new/existing/current etc legislation
Both individuals and companies can be prosecuted under the new legislation.