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Tiger Woods

One of the most dramatic moments in golf occurred on April 13, 1997. On that day, Eldrick “Tiger” Woods, at the young age of 21, won the prestigious Masters golf tournament. Not only was Woods the youngest ever to perform the feat, Woods’ score of 270 set a record for the tournament. His victory was also seen by many as a symbolic victory over years of racism in the sport of golf, and U.S. society in general. Woods’ victory in 1997 came just two days after the fiftieth anniversary of the day American baseball players broke the colour barrier in professional baseball. Also, Woods’ victory came in a sport long recognized for racial exclusion. The Augusta National Golf Club excluded blacks from playing in the Masters tournament until 1975, and the Professional Golfers Association only removed its “Caucasians only” rule in 1961.

Woods was born in the state of Florida in 1975. He rose to fame quickly, winning the US amateur tournament from 1994-96, National Collegiate Athletic Association champion in 1996, and US Junior championship from 1991-1993. In the first year that Woods turned professional, it is estimated that over $650 million (U.S.) in extra revenue was generated in golf. Television ratings soared in the sport, and the Professional Golfers Association negotiated huge contracts with American television networks as a result of Woods’ fame.

Woods has also negotiated record-breaking private sponsorship deals with major firms such as Nike, Buick, Titleist, American Express, and many others. In fact, Woods negotiated deals in the millions even before he turned professional. Truly an international sports celebrity, Woods sees himself as someone destined not only to be a great athlete, but also a person who will have some significant social or political impact on the world. It is not clear, however, what that impact will be. But there is little question that he will be one of the, if not the, richest athletes in history. Woods is destined not just to be a multi-millionaire, but a billionaire.

Heralded by some as the first black champion in a traditionally racially secluded sport, he has also been received more cautiously by those who see the limitations of using black sports stars as role models for youth. Only a tiny fraction of African Americans have even a remote chance of becoming sports stars in any sport, especially golf. The odds, in fact, are so small that there is a much greater chance of winning a lottery.

However, by some accounts as many as 80% of African American youth aspire to make a living from playing sports. Meanwhile, 45% of African American children live below the poverty line in the U.S.

If the trajectory of Woods’ career continue on its current path, it is possible he will satisfy his father’s wishes for Tiger: “to make an impact on the world… it will be spiritual and humanitarian and will transcend the world of golf.”


exciting or impressive
A superb goal by Owen earned United a dramatic victory yesterday.
Some of the most dramatic events in American history happened here.


something that is an impressive achievement, because it needs a lot of skill, strength etc to do
remarkable/considerable/incredible etc feat
They climbed the mountain in 28 days, a remarkable feat.
feat of
an incredible feat of engineering
perform/accomplish/achieve a feat
the woman who performed the feat of sailing around the world alone
no mean feat (=something that is difficult to do)
It is no mean feat to perform such a difficult piece.
It was quite a feat to move that piano by yourself!
feats of endurance
a remarkable feat of engineering
the construction of this bridge was a feat of engineering
Rustam and his amazing feats


a competition in which players compete against each other in a series of games until there is one winner
I feel I can win this tournament.

tennis/chess/badminton etc tournament


(an example of) the act of winning or state of having won, in war or in any kind of struggle: Both sides were claiming victory last night. | The captain led his team to victory. | He only managed a narrow victory in the election; he won by 23 votes. | The early settlement of the strike was hailed as a victory for common sense. | to snatch victory from the jaws of defeat (=to win when it seemed that one would lose) | a resounding/overwhelming victory | to win an easy/decisive/clear-cut victory | a significant propaganda victory | to hold a victory rally


unfair treatment of people, or violence against them, because they belong to a different race from your own
The government has promised to continue the fight against racism.
the problem of racism in schools


a rule, problem etc that prevents people from doing something, or limits what they can do
the removal of trade barriers (=something such as a tax that makes trade between countries difficult)
barrier to
Problems with childcare remain the biggest barrier to women succeeding at work.
barrier between
We want to break down barriers between doctors and patients.
The language barrier (=the inability to communicate with someone because you speak a different language) makes debate impossible

social/ethnic/language barriers
Lack of confidence is the biggest barrier to investment in the region.  trade barriers such as import taxes


when someone is not allowed to take part in something or enter a place
ᅳopposite inclusion
exclusion from
the country’s exclusion from the United Nations



the condition of being well known and talked about; RENOWN: She won overnight (=sudden) fame with her first novel. | The village’s claim to fame are its wonderful ski trails.


to judge or calculate the nature, value, size, amount, etc., of (something), esp. roughly; form an opinion about:
We have not estimated the cost of the repairs yet.
The value of the painting was estimated at several thousand dollars.
I estimate that we will arrive at 5:30.
The movie cost an estimated $25 million to make.
“What time is the plane due?” “Well, the estimated time of arrival is 5:20.”
rough estimate of the number of the killed
according to my estimate

be estimated to be/have/cost etc
The tree is estimated to be at least 700 years old.

estimate something at something
Organizers estimated the crowd at 50,000.

estimate that
Scientists estimate that smoking reduces life expectancy by around 12 years on average.

estimate how many/what etc
It is not easy to estimate how many people have the disease.

Television rating

used to tell what kind of content a TV program might have


to increase quickly to a high level
ᅳopposite plummet

Her temperature soared.
The price of petrol has soared in recent weeks.
soaring unemployment


to discuss something in order to reach an agreement, especially in business or politics
negotiate with
The government refuses to negotiate with terrorists.
negotiate an agreement/contract etc
Union leaders have negotiated an agreement for a shorter working week.
His first aim is to get the warring parties back to the negotiating table (=used to refer to official discussions) .


a record-breaking number, level, performance, or person is the highest, lowest, biggest, best etc of its type that has ever happened or existed
his record-breaking flight across the Atlantic
Another Source
(usu. in sports) going beyond the former RECORD:

a record-breaking speed


financial support for an activity or event
sponsorship from
The expedition is looking for sponsorship from one of the major banks.
a $5 million sponsorship deal
commercial sponsorships


an agreement or arrangement, especially in business or politics, that helps both sides involved
They made a deal to sell the land to a property developer.
deal with
rumors that the company had struck a deal with Microsoft to market its products
deal between
Twelve US soldiers were released after a deal between the army and the guerillas.
Cash incentives worth almost £45 million helped to clinch the deal . You can get some really good deals on the internet.
She and Branson have been discussing a possible business deal together.
The merger is still far from being a done deal .
a new band signing a major record deal


used to emphasize that the way you are describing something is really true
ᅳsynonym really
His work is truly original.
Fawcett was a truly remarkable man.
a truly great work of medieval literature


a famous living person
ᅳsynonym star
a sporting celebrity
He became a national celebrity.
They had invited a number of minor celebrities (=people who are not very famous) .


the effect or influence that an event, situation etc has on someone or something
impact on/upon
We need to assess the impact on climate change.
major/significant/profound etc impact
Higher mortgage rates have already had a major impact on spending.
impact of
an international meeting to consider the environmental impacts of global warming


seeming certain to happen at some time in the future
destined for
She seemed destined for a successful career.
destined to do something
We were destined never to meet again.

racial adjective

1 [ only before noun ]   relating to the relationships between different races of people who now live in the same country or area :
a victim of  racial discrimination
This part of the community needs to be protected from  racial prejudice .
evidence of  racial harassment
the campaign for  racial equality
the need for tolerance and  racial harmony

2 relating to the various races that humans can be divided into  →  ethnic :
a broad range of racial and ethnic groups
people of different  racial origin

racially adverb :
They live in a  racially mixed  area.
Police officers believe the attack was  racially motivated .


careful to avoid danger or risks
ᅳsee also caution
a cautious driver
a cautious approach to the crisis
The air-pollution board has reacted with cautious optimism to the announcement.
cautious about (doing) something
Keller is cautious about making predictions for the success of the program.
ᅳcautiously adverb
The government responded cautiously to the move.


a very small piece or amount:
When the factory closed, the machinery was sold off for only a fraction of its true value.
The car missed me by a fraction of an inch.
I got these shoes at a fraction of the original price.
She paused for a fraction of a second.

(esp. of a chance or possibility) slight: I haven’t the remotest idea (=don’t know at all) what you mean. | I’m afraid your chances of success are pretty remote.

Another Source
if a chance or possibility of something happening is remote, it is not very likely to happen
ᅳsynonym slight
remote chance/possibility There’s a remote chance that you can catch him before he leaves.The prospect of peace seems remote.


to desire and work towards achieving something important
aspire to
college graduates aspiring to careers in finance
aspire to do something
At that time, all serious artists aspired to go to Rome.
an aspiring young actress

He aspired after a political career/to the leadership of the party.

She aspires to become president.
he aspired to become rich and famous

make a living from

earn the money someone needs to live
She hopes to make a living (=earn the money she needs to live) from writing children’s books.


formal the events that happen during a period of time, which often lead to a particular aim or result :
The decision was certain to affect the trajectory of French politics for some time to come.



to go beyond the usual limits of something
The desire for peace transcended political differences.