آزار و اذیت ج.ن.س.ی
When an employee is subjected to unwanted S.e.x.u.a.l advances or comments by a co-worker or an employer, we say that the employee is experiencing S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment. In some workplaces, S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment is a serious problem.
In its most blatant form, a boss may demand S.e.x.u.a.l favours from an employee and threaten to fire the employee if she fails to comply. Similarly, the employer might promise a promotion or raise in exchange for some S.e.x.u.a.l favor. Whenever an employer uses the prospect of reward or punishment as a way of obtaining S.e.x.u.a.l access to an employee, S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment has occurred.
This is not the only form of S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment. Sometimes, an employee may be subjected to demeaning comments by her employer or co-worker. For example, a boss might make vul.ga.r comments about the physical appearance of the employee. Another example is that a co-worker might make remarks that speculate about the S.e.x.u.a.l behaviour of the employee. In both of these cases, the employee is treated disrespectfully on the basis of her S.e.x, so both cases would represent S.e.x.u.a.l harassment.
Some forms of S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment are more subtle. If a group of workers exchanges offensive jokes of a S.e.x.u.a.l nature, in such a way that they can be easily overheard by other workers, then this is also a form of S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment. Similarly, if workers post po.rno.graphic pictures in their workplace, in such a way that they can be seen by other workers, then this also represents S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment. In both cases, the workplace becomes an environment in which the employee is made to feel uncomfortable because of her S.e.x.
S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment usually involves a female employee who is being bothered by a male employer or co-worker. In some cases, a woman might S.e.x.u.a.lly harass a man, or one person might S.e.x.u.a.lly harass another person of the same S.e.x. However, these cases are not as common. Also, in some cases, the person who commits S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment is not a boss or co-worker, but a customer or a visitor to the workplace.
S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment is a form of intimidation and abuse of power that causes much stress for many employees. In recent years, many steps have been taken to reduce the occurrence of S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment. Educational campaigns have been designed to teach people that S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment is wrong. Stronger penalties for S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment have been introduced.
Another way to reduce the prevalence of S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment is to develop a culture of respect in the workplace. People need to be aware of how their jokes or comments might be perceived by others, and to imagine how they would feel if one of their relatives were subjected to S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment. Employers and employees must recognize that S.e.x.u.a.l harassment is a serious concern and treat potential cases of S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment very seriously. Each company should have clear policies about S.e.x.u.a.l Harassment, and each should establish a fair and efficient process for dealing with complaints of this kind. In this way, the workplace can be a comfortable environment for all persons.
to cause to experience or suffer:
We were subjected to a great deal of ill-mannered abuse.
He was subjected to torture.
The scientists subjected the products to a number of rigorous tests.
No one would willingly subject himself to such indignities.
advances: [plural] formal
an attempt to start a se.x.ual relationship with someone
She accused her boss of making advances to her.
The witness said that he ‘went berserk’ when she rejected his sexual advances .
to make (someone) worried and unhappy by causing trouble, esp. on repeated occasions:
a busy, harassed housewife
I feel harassed by all the pressures at the office.
when someone behaves in an unpleasant or threatening way towards you
African-Americans have been complaining about police harassment for years.
Political parties are banned, and harassment of dissidents is commonplace.
s.exual/racial harassment (=because of someone’s sex or race)
We need effective strategies to combat sexual harassment in the workplace.
the act of annoying somebody, esp. a woman, by making remarks about s.ex or acting in a way that suggests a desire for s.ex in a situation where this is not suitable or welcome behavior, esp. at work:
sex.ual harassment of woman at work
shameless; offensively noticeable:
his blatant disregard for the law
a blatant abuse of power
favours [plural] old-fashioned when you allow someone to have s.ex with you
She shared her se.xual favors with many men.
to do what you have to do or are asked to do
Failure to comply with the regulations will result in prosecution.
The newspaper was asked by federal agents for assistance and agreed to comply.
The factory was closed for failing to comply with government safety regulations.
showing less respect for someone than they deserve, or making someone feel embarrassed or ashamed
ￚsee also degrading
policies demeaning to women
I refuse to do demeaning work.
remarks, jokes etc that are vulgar deal with s.ex in a very rude and offensive way
something that you say when you express an opinion or say what you have noticed
The Senator denied making the remark .
a sexist/critical/personal etc remark
He was fired for making racist remarks during an interview.
to think about or talk about a matter without having the necessary facts; make guesses:
We don’t know all the circumstances, so it would be pointless to speculate (on what happened).
The police are speculating that this incident may be linked to a similar attack two weeks ago.
to guess about the possible causes or effects of something, without knowing all the facts or details
She refused to speculate.
speculate on/about (why/what etc)
Jones refused to speculate about what might happen.
Some analysts speculated that jobs will be lost.
not easy to notice or understand unless you pay careful attention
The pictures are similar, but there are subtle differences between them.
The warning signs of the disease are so subtle that they are often ignored.
a subtle form of racism
subtle taste/flavour/smell etc
The flavour of the dried berries is more subtle.
The dish had a subtle hint of ginger.
to accidentally hear what other people are saying, when they do not know that you have heard
I overheard part of their conversation.
I overheard what they were saying
overhear somebody saying something
She overheard the management discussing pay rises.
overhear somebody say (that)
We overheard the teacher say there would be a pop quiz today.
I couldn’t help overhearing your argument.
to make someone feel worried and not confident
The whole idea of going to Oxford intimidated me.
She had endured years of intimidation and violence.
the intimidation of voters
a punishment for breaking a law, rule, or legal agreement
No littering. Penalty $500.
Withdrawing the money early will result in a 10% penalty.
The penalty for a first offense is a fine.
severe/stiff/heavy penalty Drug dealers face severe penalties.
If he is convicted, he could receive the death penalty (=be killed as a punishment) .
common at a particular time, in a particular place, or among a particular group of people
prevalent in/among etc
Solvent abuse is especially prevalent among younger teenagers.
the prevalent belief in astrology
ￚprevalence noun [singular,uncountable]
the prevalence of deafness in older age groups
to understand or think of something or someone in a particular way
ￚsee also perception
perceive something/somebody as something
Even as a young woman she had been perceived as a future chief executive.
perceive something/somebody to be something
Often what is perceived to be aggression is simply fear.
Children who do badly in school tests often perceive themselves to be failures.
to (come to) have knowledge of (something) through one of the senses (esp. the sight) or through the mind; become conscious of or understand:
He perceived a subtle change in her manner.
[+(that)] They perceived that they were unwelcome and left.
[+wh-] We were unable to perceive where the problem lay.
[+obj+v-ing] I perceived a small trickle of blood coming from the patient’s ear.
USAGE You perceive (=notice, become conscious of) something that exists outside your thoughts:
I perceived a change in the tone of her voice.
You conceive (=form in the mind) a completely new idea:
She conceived a bold plan of escape.
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