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روانشناسی

روانشناسی

روانشناسی

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Psychology

Are you interested in the behavior of people and animals? If you are, then you might enjoy the study of psychology. Psychology is the study of behavior, but this is a very large area of study. There are several different branches of psychology, each of which studies a different aspect of behavior.

Social psychologists study interactions among people. For example, a social psychologist might try to learn about the situations that cause people to behave aggressively. Another question studied by social psychologists is why certain people become attracted to each other. One of the interesting problems in social psychology is conformity: what causes people to behave in the same way, and to follow what others do and say?

Cognitive psychologists study thinking, memory, and language. One problem studied by cognitive psychologists is how people remember numbers. For example, what is the best way to memorize some numbers? Is it better to repeat the numbers to oneself, or to try to attach some meaning to these numbers? A cognitive psychologist might also study language. For example, why can young children learn a second language so quickly and easily? Cognitive psychologists are also interested in the ways that people learn to solve problems, such as finding a new place.

Clinical psychologists study mental illnesses. For example, a clinical psychologist might try to find out the causes of depression and to figure out ways of helping people who are depressed. Other clinical psychologists might study the behavior of people who suffer from addiction to drugs, so that this problem can be prevented and treated. Another topic of interest to clinical psychologists is violent behavior. It is very important to find ways of preventing violence and to change the behavior of persons who act violently.

Some psychologists are interested in the measurement of psychological characteristics. For example, psychologists might develop tests to assess a person’s intelligence, personality traits, or interests. These tests can be used to help people make decisions about education, occupation, and clinical treatment.

Psychologists who study the behavior of animals are called ethologists. Ethologists often go into wilderness areas to watch the activity of birds, fish, or other animals. These psychologists try to figure out why it is that some animals have “instincts” for various behaviors such as parenting, mating, or fighting. Some ethologists have learned very much about the unusual behaviors observed in many animals.

These are only a few of the many areas of psychology. Truly, psychology is one of the most interesting areas of knowledge!



aspect:

one part of a situation, idea, plan etc that has many parts
aspect of
*Dealing with people is the most important aspect of my work.
*Alcoholism affects all aspects of family life.
*the most terrifying aspect of nuclear bombing is radiation
*the various aspects of the problem

Another Source:
a particular side of a many-sided situation, idea, plan, etc.:
The training program covers every aspect of the job. | The rise in violent crime is one of the more worrying aspects of the current situation.


interaction:
روانشناسی
the activity of talking to other people, working together with them etc
interaction with/between


Cognitive:

related to the process of knowing, understanding, and learning something
*cognitive learning


persons:

روانشناسی
formal or law

someone who is not known or not named
*The police are appealing for any person who was in the area at this time to contact them.

*murder by person or persons unknown
*All 115 persons on board were killed.


characteristic:

a quality or feature of something or someone that is typical of them and easy to recognize
characteristic of
a baby discovering the physical characteristics of objects
defining/distinguishing characteristic (=one that separates someone or something from others of the same type) Violent images are a defining characteristic of his work.


assess:

1
to make a judgment about a person or situation after thinking carefully about it
ᅳsynonym judge
assess the impact/extent/effectiveness etc of something

*a report to assess the impact of advertising on children
assess what/how etc
The technique is being tried in classrooms to assess what effects it may have.
be assessed as something
Many of the adults were assessed as having learning difficulties.
2
to calculate the value or cost of something
be assessed at something
The value of the business was assessed at £1.25 million.


ethologist:

The scientific study of animal behavior, especially as it occurs in a natural environment


wilderness:

روانشناسی

a large area of land that has never been developed or farmed
the Alaskan wilderness

Another Source
an area in its natural state where there are no signs of humans: We went camping in the beautiful wilderness of West Virginia. | The mountain lion rarely leaves the wilderness.


instinct:

a natural tendency to behave in a particular way or a natural ability to know something, which is not learned
ᅳsee also intuition
instinct for
Animals have a natural instinct for survival.
instinct to do something
the human instinct to form relationships
by instinct
Birds build nests by instinct.
sexual/maternal/survival instinct

Her instinct told her that something was wrong.


mating:

جفت گیری
*the mating season


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