لندن،شهر،کلیسا،مردم :: لندن،شهر،کلیسا،مردمThe city of London is one of the most famous cities in the world. In previous centuries, London was the centre of the British Empire. Today, it is one of the most important cities of the emerging European Union.

London is located in southeastern England, on the Thames River (pronounced “tems”). The greater London area contains about 12 million people, and the surrounding areas contain several million more. London was the first city in the modern world to have reached a population of one million people.

London is a very old city, and many of its neighbourhoods maintain their distinct character. One of the most famous parts of London is the East End, where people speak with an accent known as “Cockney.” One of the features of the Cockney accent is that the letter “h” is often not pronounced.

London’s population is very cosmopolitan. The city contains, in addition to people of English background, large communities of South Asian, Chinese, African, and Caribbean people. Most of these people have their origins in countries that belong to the British Commonwealth of Nations.

Many of the most famous buildings in London are located in a small central area. This area contains several huge churches, including Westminster Abbey, where many famous people are buried. Another famous church is St. Paul’s Cathedral, which was re-built after the original was destroyed by fire in the year 1665.

The Houses of Parliament are also found in central London. These buildings are famous for their Gothic architecture and for the sound of the large clock, known as “Big Ben.” The Tower of London, which was formerly used as a prison, is now a popular tourist attraction. Buckingham Palace, the residence of the royal family, was first opened for public viewing during the 1990s.

London is also famous for its many impressive museums, art galleries, and theatres. For example, the British Museum contains priceless objects from all parts of the world. The National Gallery holds a great collection of artistic masterpieces. The Globe Theatre has been re-built to appear as it did during the time of Shakespeare.

Despite its age, London remains a vibrant and busy city. Most of the cultural and financial institutions in England are located in London, and the city attracts many young people from other parts of England and around the world. Of course, London is popular with tourists who come to see the many attractions of this city.

in an early state of development
the country’s emerging oil industry

clearly different or belonging to a different type
two entirely distinct languages distinct types/groups/categories etc There are four distinct types.
distinct from
The learning needs of the two groups are quite distinct from each other.

[countable] someone who comes from the east part of London, and who has a particular way of speaking which is typical of working class people who live there
[uncountable] a way of speaking English that is typical of working class people in the east part of London

ᅳcockney adjective
She has a broad cockney accent.

a cosmopolitan place has people from many different parts of the world – use this to show approval
a vibrant, cosmopolitan city a lively hotel with a cosmopolitan atmosphere

in earlier times
ᅳsynonym previously
Kiribati, formerly known as the Gilbert Islands

This elegant hotel was formerly a castle.

tourist attraction:

place or event that attracts large numbers of tourists:
Disneyworld is a major tourist attraction

something interesting or enjoyable to see or do
The beautiful beaches are the island’s main attraction (=most popular place, activity etc) . tourist attraction (=a place that many tourists visit)
one of the city’s chief attractions is its cleanliness

extremely valuable
priceless antiques


a work of art, a piece of writing or music etc that is of very high quality or that is the best that a particular artist, writer etc has produced
ᅳsynonym masterwork

Mary Shelley was just 18 when she wrote the horror masterpiece ‘Frankenstein’.