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Education Systems in Canada
In Canada each province is responsible for its own education systems. In general, there are three levels of education systems in Canada: (i) Kindergarten to Grade 8; (ii) Grade 9 to Grade 12; and (iii) Post-Secondary education. Kindergarten may further be divided into Junior and Senior Kindergarten for four and five years old children, respectively.
Grade 9 to 12 students are enrolled in a secondary school system, which is similar to a high school system in the U.S.A. Some cities and towns may have a junior high school system, which accommodates children from Grade 7 to Grade 9. In the Province of Ontario there is Grade 13, which is a required step for all students who want to attend a degree-granting university. This feature has been unique for Ontario, but the Province has decided to abolish it in order to be consistent with other provinces’ secondary education systems. By Year 2003, when Grade 13 is completely abandoned, the number of students entering a university or college is expected to be almost double (called “double cohort“).
Post-secondary education system in Canada includes universities, community colleges, university colleges, and other private institutions providing post-secondary education, such as skill training and continuing education.
A university is a standing-alone, degree-granting institution that offers certificates, diplomas, and Bachelor/Master/Ph.D. degrees. There are about 50 universities throughout the country, most of which are publicly funded institutions. Some of the most recognized universities include the University of Toronto, McGill University, the University of British Columbia, and Queen’s University.
A community college offers a variety of programs for students who want to learn technical skills, skills that they can apply to the real world quickly. These programs are usually one or two years in length emphasizing hand-on experience in classroom setting. It grants certificates and diplomas and offers a variety of training courses for people who want to upgrade themselves with the current markets and new technologies.
A university college, as the name implies, is somewhat in between a community college and a university. This type of institution is common in British Columbia, the most western province in Canada.
It grants certificates and diplomas by itself. However, it is not able to grant university degrees alone, although it often offers all the courses required for a university degree. The curriculum for a degree program is usually designed in conjunction with a university, which actually grants degrees to the university college students.
(someone) who is younger:
He is my junior (by several years).
(someone who is) older:
He’s my senior (=is older than me) by two years.
Senior students have certain privileges.
in the same order as the things you have just mentioned
The cups and saucers cost £5 and £3 respectively.
The teachers and coaches got pay rises of 5% and 7% respectively. (=the teachers got 5% and the coaches got 7%)
the first and second prizes went to Mehri and Julie respectively
enrol British English enroll American English
to officially arrange to join a school, university, or course, or to arrange for someone else to do this
British English I decided to enrol for ‘Art for Beginners’.
especially American English Californians are rushing to enroll in special aerobics classes.
She decided to enroll (herself) in the history course at the local evening school.
to provide with a place
to give someone something or allow them to have something that they have asked for
Britain could grant Spain’s request .
I would love to be able to grant her wish.
grant somebody something
The council have granted him permission to build on the site.
grant something to somebody
A licence to sell alcohol was granted to the club.
(=used in prayers) Grant that we may know your presence and love.
to bring to an end by law; stop: Slavery was abolished in the US in the 19th century. | a government plan to abolish school lunch programs
to stop doing something because there are too many problems and it is impossible to continue
The game had to be abandoned due to bad weather.
They abandoned their attempt to recapture the castle.
Because of the fog they abandoned their idea of driving.
a group of people of the same age, social class etc, especially when they are being studied
a cohort of 386 patients aged 65 plus
a secondary school in the UK that students from the local area can go to, and which also has classes for adults
a college in the US that students can go to for two years in order to learn a skill or prepare for university
ￚsynonym junior college
Bachelor of Arts/Science/Education etc
a first university degree in an arts subject, a science subject etc
ￚsee also BA, BSc, BEd
done or controlled by the government
a publicly funded health service
to provide money for an activity, organization, event etc
The project is jointly funded by several local companies. government-funded research
[transitive] to use something such as a method, idea, or law in a particular situation, activity, or process
apply something to something
New technology is being applied to almost every industrial process.
These ideas are often difficult to apply in practice.
an official document that states that a fact or facts are true
birth/death/marriage certificate (=giving details of someone’s birth, death, or marriage)
an official paper stating that you have completed a course of study or passed an examination
a degree certificate
to express, show, or mean indirectly; suggest:
Their failure to reply to our letter seems to imply a lack of interest.
She didn’t actually say she had been there, but she certainly implied that she had.
Are you implying that we are not telling the truth?
did her silence imply consent?
an implied threat/criticism
the subjects that are taught by a school, college etc, or the things that are studied in a particular subject
Languages are an essential part of the school curriculum.
on the curriculum
IT is now on the curriculum in most schools.
in the curriculum
Students are exempt from some classes in the curriculum for religious reasons.
ￚsee also syllabus
fml (a) combination of qualities, groups, or events:
The army is acting in conjunction with (=in combination with) the police in the hunt for the terrorists.
in conjunction with somebody/something
working, happening, or being used with someone or something else
The worksheets are designed to be used in conjunction with the new course books.