E-Commerce



Electronic commerce (or simply e-commerce) is more than just buying and selling products or services online. It encompasses the entire online process of developing, marketing, selling, delivering, servicing, and paying for products and services. E-commerce systems rely on the resources of the Internet and other computer networks to support every step of the process. Through an e-commerce system, customers can order and make payment for the products or services they purchase online and receive support at the company’s websites through the Internet. It also allows customers and suppliers to participate in product development via Internet newsgroups and E-mail exchanges. There are three basic types of e-commerce applications: business-to-business (B2B), business-to-consumer (B2C), and consumer-to-consumer (C2C).

Business-to-business (B2B) e-commerce is the online automation of purchase and sale transactions from business to business. Many companies use secure Internet or extranets for their business customers and suppliers to access to their websites while some may rely on electronic data interchange (EDI) systems. Cisco Systems, a leading manufacturer of computer networking equipment, makes about 40 percent of its sales online. These activities include order taking, credit check, production scheduling and technical support to their customers. General Electric and the United Parcel Service (UPS) are a few of many other firms that offer B2B e-commerce sites.  

Business-to-consumer (B2C) e-commerce creates electronic marketplaces where businesses promote and sell products and services directly to consumers. In this form of electronic commerce, which has grown into a multibillion dollar market, businesses can bypass intermediaries such as distributors or retail outlets. Companies like Amazon.com and Dell Corporation offer e-commerce websites that provide virtual storefronts and multimedia catalogs, interactive order processing, secure electronic payment systems, and online customer support.  

Consumer-to-consumer (C2C) e-commerce is an important alternative for business-to-business or business-to-consumer e-commerce. In this form of e-commerce, consumers can buy and sell products and services with each other in an auction process at an auction website. Through an online auction site like e-Bay, one of the most successful C2C e-commerce models, consumers or businesses can participate in or sponsor consumer or business auctions. Other forms of consumer-to-consumer e-commerce include personal advertising of products or services by consumers at electronic newspaper sites, consumer e-commerce portals, or personal websites.



commerce

commerce
the buying and selling of goods and services; trade:

international commerce

simply

simply
if you say or explain something simply, you say it in a way that is easy for people to understand
Try to express yourself more simply. To put it simply , the tax cuts mean the average person will be about 3% better off.


encompass

encompass
to include a wide range of ideas, subjects, etc
The study encompasses the social, political, and economic aspects of the situation.
The course encompasses the whole of English literature since 1850.

a large company whose activities encompass printing, publishing, and computers

Internet

internet
the Internet
a computer system that allows millions of computer users around the world to exchange information
on the Internet
You can find all kinds of information on the internet.
More and more companies are using the internet to conduct their business.
Do you have access to the Internet ?
an internet café (=a café with computers where people can pay to use the internet)

همیشه قبل از اینترنت حرف تعریف “ذ” آورده می‌شود و حرف “ای” در اینترنت بزرگ نوشته می‌شود
I searched the Internet

via

via
using a particular person, machine etc to send something
I sent a message to Kitty via her sister.

You can access Salam Zaban via the Internet.

exchange

exchange
▶GIVING/RECEIVING◀
the act of giving someone something and receiving something else from them
exchange of
an exchange of political prisoners
in exchange for something
I’ve offered to paint the kitchen in exchange for a week’s accommodation.
Four of my cassettes for your Madonna CD is a fair exchange .


automation

automation
the use of computers and machines instead of people to do a job

the automation of the automotive industry

transaction

transaction
a business deal or action, such as buying or selling something
The bank charges a fixed rate for each transaction.
financial transactions


extranet

extranet
a computer system in a company that allows better communication between the company and its customers by combining Internet and intranet systems, so that some customers can view some of the company’s private information that is not normally available on the Internet


rely

rely
rely on/upon somebody/something phrasal verb
to trust or depend on someone or something to do what you need or expect them to do
ᅳsee also reliable, relianceI knew I could rely on David.
rely on somebody/something to do something
Many working women rely on relatives to help take care of their children.
rely on/upon somebody/something for
Many people now rely on the Internet for news.
You can’t rely on the weather. (=it may well be bad)
I think I can come, but don’t rely on it.
We’re relying on your discretion.
Don’t rely on going to Tibet. (=perhaps you won’t)
Rely on my/me doing it.
Don’t rely on the bank lending you the money. (=perhaps they won’t)

You can rely on me to help you.

interchange
interchange

an exchange, especially of ideas or thoughts
interchange of
the interchange of ideas between students and staff
the interchange of gifts


leading

leading
best, most important, or most successful, main, chief
*The army played a leading role in organizing the attempted coup.
*the leading industrial nations

*a leading heart specialist

*leading members of the government
*He was one of the leading composers of his time.
*a leading role in the new movie


manufacturer

manufacturer
also manufacturers
[plural] a company that makes large quantities of goods
Read the manufacturer’s instructions before using your new dishwasher.

The fridge was sent back to the manufacturers.
The washing machine didn’t work, so we sent it back to the manufacturers.


billion

billion
the number 1,000,000,000
The final cost could be as much as one billion dollars.
two/three/four etc billion
3.5 billion years ago
Overseas debt is a staggering £16 billion.
billions of pounds/dollars etc
Many airlines have lost billions of dollars.


intermediary 

 intermediary
a person or organization that tries to help two other people or groups to agree with each other
ᅳsee also go-between
Jackson acted as an intermediary between the two parties.
He acted as an intermediary in the dispute.
ᅳintermediary adjective [only before noun]
an intermediary role in the talks

Switzerland’s foreign minister served as an intermediary between the two countries.

distributor

distributor
a company or person that supplies shops and companies with goods
The company is the local distributor for Volkswagen spare parts.


retail

retail
the sale of goods in shops to customers, for their own use and not for selling to anyone else
ᅳsee also wholesale
the retail trade/business
a manager with twenty years’ experience in the retail business
retail outlet/shop/store/chain
We are looking for more retail outlets for our products.
a retail price of £8.99
The retail value would be around $500.
Retail sales fell by 1.3% in January.
the retail of products
retail prices
the retail price of each commodity is higher than its wholesale price
a retail store

outlet

outlet
a) formal

a shop, company, or organization through which products are sold
Benetton has retail outlets in every major European city. a fast-food outlet
our farmers have a choice of several outlets  
they must find new outlets for their industries 

b) a shop where a company sells its goods – use this in business or legal contexts
Benetton has retail outlets in every major European city.
The company has been forced to close hundreds of its retail outlets.

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storefront

storefront
(a building having) the front of a store facing a street:

storefronts for rent
a party set up in an empty storefront

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interactive

interactive

involving talking and working together :  
interactive teaching methods such as role playing

alternative


something you can choose to do or use instead of something else
alternative to
Is there a viable alternative to the present system?
If payment is not received within five days, legal action will be our only alternative .
I had no alternative but to report him to the police.
He quickly assessed what alternatives were open to him.
I’m afraid I have no alternative but to report you to the police.

auction

auction
a public meeting where land, buildings, paintings etc are sold to the person who offers the most money for them
to bid at a furniture auction 

It was sold by auction.
at auction
The house was sold at auction.
put something up for auction (=try to sell something at an auction) This week 14 of his paintings were put up for auction. auction house (=a company that arranges auctions)
They’ve put the contents of their house up for auction.


sponsor
sponsor

portal

portal
a website that helps you find other websites

retail
the sale of goods in shops to customers, for their own use and not for selling to anyone else
ᅳsee also wholesale
the retail trade/business
a manager with twenty years’ experience in the retail business
retail outlet/shop/store/chain
We are looking for more retail outlets for our products.
a retail price of £8.99
The retail value would be around $500.
Retail sales fell by 1.3% in January.