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دویت دی آیزنهاور: مجتمع نظامی-صنعتی 2

دویت دی آیزنهاور: مجتمع نظامی-صنعتی 2

لینک دانلود فایل رایگان آموزش انگلیسی

Dwight D. Eisenhower: ‘The Military-Industrial Complex’ (2)

We must never let the weight of this combination endanger our liberties or democratic processes. We should take nothing for granted. Only an alert and knowledgeable citizenry can compel the proper meshing of the huge industrial and military machinery of defense with our peaceful methods and goals, so that security and liberty may prosper together. Akin to and largely responsible for the sweeping changes in our industrial-military posture has been the technological revolution during recent decades. In this revolution research has become central. It also becomes more formalized, complex, and costly. A steadily increasing share is conducted for by, or at the direction of the federal government. Today the solitary inventor, tinkering in his shop, has been overshadowed by task forces of scientists, in laboratories and testing fields. In the same fashion, the free university, historically the fountainhead of free ideas and scientific discovery, has experienced a revolution in the conduct of research. Partly because of the huge costs involved, a government contract becomes virtually a substitute for intellectual curiosity. For every old blackboard there are now hundreds of new electronic computers. Another factor in maintaining balance involves the element of time. As we peer into society’s future, we-you and I, and our government-must avoid the impulse to live only for today, plundering, for our own ease and convenience, the precious resources of tomorrow. We cannot mortgage the material assets of our grandchildren without risking the loss also of their political and spiritual heritage. We want democracy to survive for all generations to come, not to become the insolvent phantom of tomorrow. Such a confederation must be one of equals. The weakest must come to the conference table with the same confidence as do we, protected as we are by our moral, economic, and military strength. That table, though scarred by many past frustrations, cannot be abandoned for the certain agony of the battlefield. Disarmament, with mutual honor and confidence, is a continuing imperative. Together we must learn how to compose differences-not with arms but with intellect and decent purpose. Because this need is so sharp and apparent, I confess that I lay down my official responsibilities in this field with a definite sense of disappointment. As one who has witnessed the horror and the lingering sadness of war, as one who knows that another war could utterly destroy this civilization which has been so slowly and painfully built over thousands of years, I wish I could say tonight that a lasting peace is in sight.

take somebody/something for granted

to expect that someone or something will always be there when you need them and never think how important or useful they are :

Bridget was careful not to take him for granted.

alert adjective

able to think quickly and clearly :

Jack was as mentally alert as a man half his age.

compel verb

to force someone to do something → compulsion
compel somebody to do something

The law will compel employers to provide health insurance.
She felt compelled to resign because of the scandal.

mesh verb

if two ideas or things mesh, they fit together very well

mesh with
-His own ideas did not mesh with the views of the party.

prosper verb

if people or businesses prosper, they grow and develop in a successful way, especially by becoming rich or making a large profit :

  • Businesses across the state are prospering.

akin to something

very similar to something :
Something akin to panic overwhelmed him.

tinker verb

to make small changes to something in order to repair it or make it work better
tinker with
Congress has been tinkering with the legislation.
tinker around with something
Dad was always tinkering around with engines.

overshadow verb
to make someone or something else seem less important :

Her interest in politics began to overshadow her desire to be a poet.
The achievement of the men’s team was overshadowed by the continuing success of the women’s team.

fountainhead noun
the origin of something SYN source

curiosity noun

the desire to know about something :

I opened the packet just to satisfy my curiosity
The news aroused a lot of curiosity among local people.
She decided to follow him out of curiosity .
Margaret looked at him with curiosity .
curiosity about
Children have a natural curiosity about the world around them.
a man of immense intellectual curiosity
It was idle curiosity that made me ask.

intellectual adjective

relating to the ability to understand things and think intelligently ? mental
intellectual development/ability/activity etc
a job that requires considerable intellectual effort

peer verb

to look very carefully at something, especially because you are having difficulty seeing it :

He was peering through the wet windscreen at the cars ahead.
Philippa peered into the darkness.


look to turn your eyes towards someone or something, so that you can see them :
You should never look directly at the sun.
After a while, he turned and looked at me.

have/take a look especially spoken to look at something quickly, especially in order to find or check something :
I’ll have a look in my desk.
Take a look at this!

glance to look at someone or something for a short time and then look quickly away :
Damien glanced nervously at his watch.

peek/peep ( also take a peek/peep ) to look quickly at something. Used especially when you are not supposed to look, or when you are looking through a small gap :
The door was open so he peeked inside.
Katy peeped at her birthday present on the table.

peer to look very carefully, especially because you cannot see well :
Kenji was peering at the screen.

glare to look at someone in an angry way :
She glared at me as I got up to leave.

stare to look at someone or something for a long time without moving your eyes :
It’s rude to stare.
She stared straight into the camera.

gaze to look at someone or something for a long time, often without realizing that you are doing it :
She gazed out of the window.
He lay on his bed gazing at the ceiling.

gape to look at someone or something for a long time, usually with your mouth open, because you are very shocked or surprised :
People gaped at him with wide-open mouths.

regard formal to look at someone or something, especially in a particular way : He regarded her steadily.

impulse noun
a sudden strong desire to do something without thinking about whether it is a sensible thing to do SYN urge

impulse to do something
a sudden impulse to laugh
Marge’s first impulse was to run.
Gerry couldn’t resist the impulse to kiss her.
on impulse
On impulse, I picked up the phone and rang her.
Most beginners buy plants on impulse and then hope for the best.
impulse buying/shopping (= when you buy things that you had not planned to buy )

plunderverb written
to use up all or most of the supplies of something in a careless way :

Unlicensed fishermen have plundered tuna stocks.
the egotism of man as he plunders our planet

mortgage verb

mortgage the/sb’s future to borrow money or do something that is likely to cause problems in the future, that other people will have to deal with :
The report explains how governments are mortgaging their nations’ futures.

asset noun

[ usually plural ] the things that a company owns, that can be sold to pay debts
in assets
a corporation with $9 billion in assets
the value of a company’s assets

insolvent adjective

not having enough money to pay what you owe SYN bankrupt :
The company was later declared insolvent (= officially said to be insolvent ) .

phantom noun

something that exists only in your imagination

confederation noun

a group of people, political parties, or organizations that have united for political purposes or tradeSYN alliance

scar verb

if an unpleasant experience scars you, it leaves you with a feeling of sadness or fear that continues for a long time :
She was scarred by her father’s suicide.

frustration noun

the feeling of being annoyed, upset, or impatient, because you cannot control or change a situation, or achieve something :

People often feel a sense of frustration that they are not being promoted quickly enough.
in/with frustration
I was practically screaming with frustration.
In spite of his frustrations, he fell in love with the country.

agony noun

a very sad, difficult, or unpleasant experience :
It was agony not knowing if she would live.
agony of
He was in agonies of remorse.
? pile on the pressure/agony at pile on ( 2 ) , ? prolong the agony at prolong ( 2 )

Disarmament noun

when a country reduces the number of weapons it has, or the size of its army, navy etc :
a commitment to worldwide nuclear disarmament

decent adjective
1 [ usually before noun ] of a good enough standard or quality :
a decent salary
Don’t you have a decent jacket?
a house with a decent-sized yard
Their in-flight magazine is halfway decent (= quite good ) .

2 following moral standards that are acceptable to society ? decency

decent citizens/people/folk etc
The majority of residents here are decent citizens.
a decent burial
Paul visited the local bars more frequently than was decent for a senior lecturer.
The chairman did the decent thing (= did what people thought he ought to ) and resigned.