Continental Drift

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earthDid you know that Europe and North America are slowly moving away from each other, at the rate of about four centimetres per year?  This movement seems far too slow to be of any importance, but over a period of millions of years, continents can move great distances across the surface of the Earth.

Until the early 20th century, scientists assumed that the locations of the continents were fixed. 

But a young German scientist named Alfred Wegener began to question that assumption. 

He noticed several facts that suggested the possibility that continents could move.

First, Wegener noticed that the coastlines of some continents seemed that they could fit together. 

A good example of this is the west coast of Africa and the east coast of South America. 

This suggested that these continents had long ago “broken apart” from each other.

Also, Wegener knew that some similar species of animals lived on continents that were very far apart. 

This made him wonder if those species had once been a single species that lived in one homeland. 

Those species would then have diverged when the continents divided.

In addition, Wegener found that some of the landforms on distant continents were quite similar.

For example, the rocks that make up the mountains of Scotland are similar to the rocks that make up the mountains of the eastern United States.

At first, Wegener’s idea was ridiculed by many scientists. 

They thought that his theory of continental drift was absurd

Part of the reason for this was that Wegener did not know how this movement of continents could happen. Unfortunately, Wegener died in 1930, at the age of 50, when he was on a scientific expedition to Greenland.

During the 1960s, scientists realized that Wegener had been right.  New discoveries showed that the continents rested on top of giant “plates,” that could slide around the Earth, above a layer of molten rock.

Today, the idea of continental drift has been shown to be basically correct.

The movement of continents accounts for the creation of many mountain ranges, which rise when continents slowly collide.  It also accounts for the creation of many valleys, which sink when continents slowly break apart. Continental drift also explains why the fossils of tropical plants and animals are sometimes found on islands in very cold places: those islands had once been located in warmer parts of the earth!

Wegener’s theory of continental drift was a revolutionary and radical idea. Eventually, however, this theory turned out to be correct. It is too bad that Wegener did not live to see the acceptance of this theory.



diverge

if similar things diverge, they develop in different ways and so are no longer similar
The two species diverged millions of years ago.
Global growth rates are diverging markedly.


ridicule

to laugh at a person, idea etc and say that they are stupid
At the time, his ideas were ridiculed.


drift

drift
very slow movement, especially over water or through the air


absurd

completely stupid or unreasonable
ᅳsynonym ridiculous
quite/slightly/completely etc absurd
It seems quite absurd to expect anyone to drive for 3 hours just for a 20 minute meeting.
It seems an absurd idea.


expedition

expedition
a long and carefully organized journey, especially to a dangerous or unfamiliar place, or the people that make this journey
an expedition to the North Pole another Everest expedition
on an expedition
He went on an expedition to Borneo.
I’m sending/taking part in/going on an expedition to photograph wild animals in Africa.
an expedition to the North Pole


molten

molten
molten metal or rock has been made into a liquid by being heated to a very high temperature
molten iron molten lava (=liquid rock from a volcano)


account

 
to be the reason why something happens
ᅳsynonym explain
Recent pressure at work may account for his behavior.


range

range
▶MOUNTAINS/HILLS◀
[countable]a group of mountains or hills, usually in a line
a land of high mountain ranges and deep valleys range of mountains/hills

the longest range of hills in the Lake District

collide

radical

▶OPINIONS◀
radical ideas are very new and different, and are against what most people think or believe
ᅳsee also conservative
He has put forward some very radical ideas .
I was shocked by her radical views.
a radical approach to education


acceptance

acceptance
when people agree that an idea, statement, explanation etc is right or true
acceptance of
the acceptance of Einstein’s theory
acceptance that
There is still not widespread acceptance that fathers can care for children as well as mothers do.
gain/find acceptance
This type of management style gained acceptance in the 1980s.