Public Transit



حمل ونقل عمومی :: حمل ونقل عمومیPublic transportation in North America varies greatly from place to place. Some large cities like New York, Boston, Toronto and Montreal have subway systems. These same cities usually also have train service into the city. But most towns and cities do not have subways or trains. Some do not even have buses. Most big cities have some sort of public bus service. In most North American cities, people who use the buses complain about poor service. This is partly because most people prefer to drive a car. Automobile companies spend billions of dollars on advertising. They want to convince young people that they should drive a car as soon as they are old enough. Even when public transportation is very good, most North Americans prefer to drive cars. So mostly students, poor people and seniors use buses. The large car companies have a lot of economic and political power in North America. They can usually convince politicians to limit the money put into public transit. Lobbying by large car companies has been effective in closing down many railway lines. In some cases, large corporations have bought train tracks, and torn them up so that no one could use them again. Because of this, nearly all transportation in North America is by car, bus or truck. The automobile created the modern North American city. Cars allowed families to live outside the city and drive back in to work. Since the 1920s, large numbers of Americans have lived in the suburbs, and used cars to do nearly all their daily activities. People drive to school, to work, to the shopping mall, to the theatre, to church and to doctors, lawyers and dentists. Because the modern city is so spread out, it is difficult to get where you want to go by walking, or even by bicycling. But the automobile also causes problems. Car accidents are a major cause of death and injury. Crowded streets and snarled traffic can lead to road rage. Frustrated drivers sometimes get out of their cars to fight each other. Young people often use cars as super toys. They enjoy driving very fast and take risks while driving. A high proportion of serious accidents concern drivers using alcohol or drugs. More recently, some people have accused cell phones of being a cause of accidents. About half of the air pollution in North American cities is caused by motor vehicles. The exhaust fumes from cars and trucks are part of this. The other part is that vehicles erode the surface of the highways. Small particles are torn loose from the road and thrown into the air as cars whiz by. Heavy trucks are particularly large contributors to particle pollution. Especially in hot weather, a layer of smog covers many cities. Much of this is caused by motor vehicles. Because city roads are often crowded, the result is frequent traffic jams. When cars are moving very slowly, bumper to bumper, it adds to air pollution. Another problem with cars is that not everyone can afford one. The average car costs nearly $20,000 to buy, and about $4,000 a year to operate. So cars are also a status symbol. People with cars tend to move out of the city. As a result, downtown areas are usually where the poorer people live. For a long time, many people have said that governments should try to make downtown areas more attractive to live in. This would include improving public transit, into and inside, the cities. Then some people may move back from the suburbs. And air pollution levels will decline. Right now, the large automobile companies and oil companies oppose these measures. Recently, there have been cuts to public transit in many cities. Whether these cuts continue, or whether they get reversed, is a big political issue in North America today.

1 thought on “Public Transit

  • Senior

    Senior
    Source 1
    For senior citizens (= older people, especially those who have retired from work)
    Get one third off rail fares with a senior rail card.
    Senior discounts/concessions

    Source 2
    Someone who is over 60 years old or who is retired

    WORD FOCUS: old PEOPLE:

    elderly

    a polite word used to describe someone who is old
    middle-aged aged between about 50 and 60 years old
    senior citizen/senior American English/pensioner British English/retiree American English someone over 60 who has stopped working
    senile old and mentally ill
    ancient, geriatric, be getting on, be past it, be over the hill, be no spring chicken informal words and expressions used to describe someone who is old, often used humorously
    geriatric: geriatric medicine, care, hospitals etc are for old people
    THINGS/PLACES:

    ancient: ancient civilizations, cities, buildings, traditions etc existed many hundreds of years ago
    prehistoric: existing many thousands of years ago
    antique: antique furniture, jewellery etc is old and often valuable

    Source 3
    An elderly person; especially: one who has retired
    Synonyms: ancient, elder, geriatric, golden-ager, oldster, old-timer, senior
    Antonyms: youngster, youth

    Lobby

    Lobby
    Source 1
    Lobbies, lobbying, lobbied, lobbied [transitive, intransitive]
    Lobby (somebody) (for/against something)To try to influence a politician or the government and, for example, persuade them to support or oppose a change in the law
    Farmers will lobby Congress for higher subsidies.
    Women’s groups are lobbying to get more public money for children.

    Source 2
    To try to persuade the government or someone with political power that a law or situation should be changed lobby for/against
    The group is lobbying for a reduction in defence spending.
    Lobby somebody to do somethingWe’ve been lobbying our state representative to support the new health plan.

    Source 3
    1to conduct activities aimed at influencing public officials and especially members of a legislative body on legislation
    2to attempt to influence or sway (as a public official) toward a desired action

    Examples of LOBBY

    An organization that has been lobbying for reform of the tax laws
    The health-care industry has lobbied against the proposal.
    An organization that has been lobbying Congress for reform of the tax laws
    A player who has lobbied hard to be included in the team’s starting lineup
    I lobbied our company for a new computer.
    Close down

    Close_down
    Source 1
    The stopping of work, especially permanently, in an office, a factory, etc.

    Source 2
    If a company, shop etc closes, or you close it, it stops operating permanently [= shut down; ↪ closed]:
    We have reluctantly decided to close the factory.
    The shop closed down some time last year.

    Source 3
    An instance of suspending or stopping operations

    Examples of CLOSEDOWN

    Ordered a closedown of operations until the cause of the mine explosion could be determined
    Synonyms: arrest, arrestment, cease, cessation, check, close, end, closure, conclusion, cut off, discontinuance, discontinuation, ending, expiration, finish, halt, lapse, off set, shut down, shut off, stay, stop, stoppage, surcease, termination
    Antonyms: continuance, continuation
    Torn up (the past participle of tear up)

    Tear_up
    Source 1
    Tear something upTo destroy a document, etc. by tearing it into pieces
    Synonym: rip something up
    She tore up all the letters he had sent her.
    He accused the leader of tearing up the party’s manifesto (= of ignoring it).

    Source 2
    To remove something from the ground by pulling or pushing it violently:
    The remains of trees that had been torn up by the storm

    Source 3
    To damage, remove, or effect an opening in
    tore up the street to lay a new water main

    Snarl

    Snarl
    Source 1
    To involve somebody/something in a situation that stops their movement or progress; to become involved in a situation like this
    The accident snarled up the traffic all day

    Source 2
    Snarl upBritish English to prevent traffic from moving:
    Traffic snarled up on both sides of the road

    Source 3
    1: to cause to become knotted and intertwined : tangle
    2: to make excessively complicated

    Road rage

    Road_rage
    Source 1
    A situation in which a driver becomes extremely angry or violent with the driver of another car because of the way they are driving

    Source2
    Violence and angry behavior by car drivers towards other car drivers:
    Road rage seems to be on the increase.
    A road rage attack

    Source 3
    A motorist’s uncontrolled anger that is usually provoked by another motorist’s irritating act and is expressed in aggressive or violent behavior

    Frustrate

    Frustrate
    Source1
    To make somebody feel annoyed or impatient because they cannot do or achieve what they want
    What frustrates him is that there’s too little money to spend on the project.

    Source 2
    If something frustrates you, it makes you feel annoyed or angry because you are unable to do what you want:
    The fact that he’s working with amateurs really frustrates him.

    Proportion

    Proportion
    Source 1
    A part or share of a whole

    Water covers a large proportion of the earth’s surface.
    Loam is a soil with roughly equal proportions of clay, sand and silt.
    The proportion of regular smokers increases with age.
    A higher proportion of Americans go on to higher education than is the case in Britain.

    Source 2
    A part of a number or amount, considered in relation to the whole Proportion

    The proportion of women graduates has increased in recent years.
    Every parent is asked to contribute a proportion of the total cost.
    High/large/small etc proportion The decision affects a significant proportion of the population.
    Although the majority of offenders are men, a small proportion – about 5 percent – are women.

    Source 3
    The relation of one part to another or to the whole with respect to magnitude, quantity, or degree

    Exhaust

    Exhaust
    Source 1
    Waste gases that come out of a vehicle, an engine or a machine
    Car exhaust fumes/emissions

    Source 2

    the gas produced when an engine is working:
    Exhaust fumes

    Fumes

    fumes
    Source 1
    Smoke, gas, or something similar that smells strongly or is dangerous to breathe in
    Diesel/petrol/exhaust fumes
    To be overcome by smoke and fumes
    Clouds of toxic fumes escaped in a huge chemical factory blaze.
    The body of a man was found in a fume-filled car yesterday.

    Source 2
    Strong-smelling gas or smoke that is unpleasant to breathe in:
    Paint fumes

    Erode

    Erode
    Source 1
    1 [transitive, intransitive]
    To gradually destroy the surface of something through the action of wind, rain, etc; to be gradually destroyed in this way
    Synonym: wear away
    Erode something (away)The cliff face has been steadily eroded by the sea.
    Erode (away) The rocks have eroded away over time.

    2 [transitive, intransitive] erode (something)
    To gradually destroy something or make it weaker over a period of time; to be destroyed or made weaker in this way
    Her confidence has been slowly eroded by repeated failures.
    Mortgage payments have been eroded (= decreased in value) by inflation.

    Source 2
    If the weather erodes rock or soil, or if rock or soil erodes, its surface is gradually destroyed: The cliffs are being constantly eroded by heavy seas.
    The rocks have gradually eroded away.
    Crashing waves have eroded the cliffs along the beach.
    The shoreline has eroded badly. 

    Whiz

    Whiz
    Source 1
    Whizz British English; whiz American English [intransitive]
    [Always + adverb/preposition] informal
    a) To move very quickly, often making a sound like something rushing through the air: An ambulance whizzed past.
    I saw a big piece of metal whizzing through the air.
    b) To do something very quickly
    Whizz throughLet’s just whizz through it one more time.

    Source 2
    To fly or move swiftly especially with a whiz
    cars whizzing by

    Examples of WHIZ

    The ball whizzed through the air.
    Cars whizzed by on the highway.
    He whizzed past us on skates.
    She whizzed through the exam.
    Traffic jam

    Traffic_jam
    Source 1
    A long line of vehicles on a road that cannot move or that can only move very slowly
    We were stuck in a traffic jam.

    Usage note: DrivingHaving a car

    Have/own/

    (British English) run a car
    Ride a motorcycle/motorbike
    Drive/prefer/use an automatic/a manual/(North American English, informal) a stick shift
    Have/get your car serviced/fixed/repaired
    Buy/sell a used car/(especially British English) a second-hand car
    Take/pass/fail a (British English) driving test/(both North American English) driver’s test/road test
    Get/obtain/have/lose/carry a/your (British English) driving license/(North American English) driver’s license
    Driving

    Put on/fasten/(North American English) buckle/wear/undo your seat belt/safety belt
    Put/turn/leave the key in the ignition
    Start the car/engine
    (British English) change/(North American English) shift/put something into gear
    Press/put your foot on the brake pedal/clutch/accelerator
    Release the clutch/(especially British English) the handbrake/(both North American English) the emergency brake/the parking brake
    Drive/park/reverse the car
    (British English) indicate left/right
    (Especially North American English) signal that you are turning left/right
    Take/miss (British English) the turning/(especially North American English) the turn
    Apply/hit/slam on the brake(s)
    Beep/honk/ (especially British English) toot/(British English) sound your horn

    Problems and accidents

    A car skids/crashes (into something)/collides (with something)
    Swerve to avoid an oncoming car/a pedestrianCrash/lose control of the car
    Have/be in/be killed in/survive a car crash/a car accident/(North American English) a car wreck/a hit-and-run
    Be run over/knocked down by a car/bus/truck
    Dent/hit (British English) the bonnet/(North American English) the hood
    Break/crack/shatter (British English) the windscreen/(North American English) the windshield
    Blow/ (especially British English) burst/puncture (British English) a tyre/(North American English) a tire
    Get/have (British English) a flat tyre/a flat tire/a puncture
    Inflate/change/fit/replace/check a tyre/tire

    Traffic and driving regulations
    Be caught in/get stuck in/sit in a traffic jam
    Cause congestion/tailbacks/traffic jams/gridlock
    Experience/face lengthy delays
    Beat/avoid the traffic/the rush hour
    Break/observe/(North American English) drive the speed limit
    Be caught on (British English) a speed camera
    Stop somebody for/pull somebody over for/(British English, informal) be done for speeding
    (Both informal) run/(British English) jump a red light/the lights
    Be arrested for/charged with (British English) drink-driving/(both US) driving under the influence (DUI)/driving while intoxicated (DWI)
    Be banned/ (British English) disqualified from driving

    Source 2
    A long line of vehicles on a road that cannot move or can only move very slowly: We were stuck in a traffic jam for two hours.

    Bumper to bumper

    Bumper_to_bumper
    Source 1
    Bumper-to-bumper traffic is very close together and moving slowly

    Source 2
    Marked by long closed lines of cars

    Status

    Status
    Source 1
    1 [uncountable, countable, usually singular]
    The social or professional position of somebody/something in relation to others

    Low status jobs
    To have a high social status
    Women are only asking to be given equal status with men.
    She achieved celebrity status overnight.

    2 [uncountable]
    High rank or social position
    The job brings with it status and a high income.

    3 [uncountable, countable, usually singular]
    The level of importance that is given to something
    The high status accorded to science in our culture

    Source 2
    1your social or professional rank or position, considered in relation to other people high/low status low-status jobs
    Doctors have traditionally enjoyed high social status.

    2 respect and importance that someone or something is given [= prestige]:
    The status given to education
    Mandela’s status as a world leader

    Source 3
    a : position or rank in relation to others
    The status of a father
    b : relative rank in a hierarchy of prestige; especially : high prestige

    Examples of STATUS

    They want to maintain the city’s status as a major tourist attraction.
    He wants to improve his status in the community.
    People of different social and economic statuses
    She married a man of status and wealth.
    This job brings with it a measure of status.
    They sought asylum and were given refugee status by the government.
    They are still considered refugees. Their statuses have not changed.

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